Much technological advancement is available in the world that makes it very different from the past. People have come up with many inventions in different areas such as energy, transportation, and much more. Solar energy harnessing forms one of the greatest technologies invented by man. Today solar radiations can be used to produce electric energy for both household and industrial purposes. In addition, solar power is used for other purposes like water heating, crop drying, and soil sterilization. Just how can the free lights coming from the sun be harvested and turned into electricity, heat water, dry crops, and sterilize soil? This question can only be answered with a thorough look a solar energy harvesting technologies. The main focus will be on harvesting solar power for power generation.
Solar radiation forms the largest energy flow that enters the terrestrial ecosystem. Out of the total amount of energy radiated by the sun to the earth surface, undergo reflection and absorption in the atmosphere and the portion that reaches the earth surface undergoes conversion to all forms of energy used by humans. The total amount of solar energy reaching the earth surface is approximately 100,000 Tetra Watts a clear indication that solar energy is capable of sustaining energy use in the whole universe. Human beings since ancient times have been using solar energy for various purposes such as warming, water heating, and crop drying. With the current innovations, Engineers have invented photovoltaic cells that are capable of turning solar radiations into electric power. Since the invention of photovoltaic cells in 1839, the evolution of solar energy has continued to grow at a very fast rate. Presently, large varieties of solar technologies exist with photovoltaic cells gaining an increasing market share (Goetzberger and Volker 1-8).