You are going to teach a mixed-nationality, intermediate class the present perfect. Plan the lesson below and be ready to discuss- the assumptions you have made in planning this lesson- the main stages of the lesson- the types of task students would do- reasons for your choices
Lesson: 55 minutes
Intro (5 mins) – Main Body (35 minutes) presentation, practice (controlled), drilling, not controlled practice, free drilling – Pre-plenary (10 minutes) - Plenary (5 minutes)
Visual: Youtube video (Michael Bublé – Haven't Met You Yet), Brainstorm (on board)
Audio: Background music, listening as I state words to be drilled
Kinaesthetic: Match the Words to the Pictures in the Comic worksheet (pre-plenary), Traffic Lights Quiz (plenary), raise hands, write on board
SEN/Special Educational Needs students: Lyrics (on screen), lyric sheets
Students who complete tasks early: Write a song in the present perfect, place the present perfect rule in the correct order
*Materials: Youtube, lyrics sheet (for students), Traffic Lights quiz, red and green circles on lollipop sticks, comic sheets and text (on squares), prittstick
Intro/Starter (to set context for the present perfect): Play music in the background on youtube (as students enter the class), with the present perfect as a focal part of the lyrics. Then hand students lyrics to the song, and play the song again - show the music video on the screen (with the lyrics also showing on the screen) for SEN students, and the other students. This will help all students associate the actions of the individuals on the screen with the correct time-frame of the tense (present perfect).
List names of tenses on the board, as on worksheets. Request students to circle the correct tense, on their worksheet, used in the song. Cast a vote: ask students who circled 'the present continuous'...'present perfect' - request students to raise their hands to indicate their answers. (Do not state the answer until all possibilities have be questioned). Ask a student with the correct answer why he or she believes the answer is 'the present perfect'. Pinpoint a student and ask if he or she agrees or not with the answer, and why. Verbally confirm whether the initial student's answer is correct. Write one of the sentences within the lyrics on the board (in another colour). Annotate the sentence as you explain why the sentence is present perfect.
Main Body: Point students to the board and write the aims and objectives under your pre-written 'Aims' and 'Objectives' list. List key words on the board and task for students who complete their work early: Write a song in the present perfect, with3 short stanzas (provide sentence starters for SEN students). Ask students if they know what the key words mean. Explain that you've been singing and playing the harp and the guitar for 'x' (time). Explain where you've performed, etc. Ask students if they play any musical instruments, sing or write songs. Ask students how long they've been playing their instruments, etc.
Request students to read text about a prospective employee's interview experience in the music industry.
Presentation: Conduct an interview using the worksheet template and keyword (interview students in front of the class – ask one question to each student). Explain that students are to do the same for their task, in pairs. Ask a student to explain to the class what the task is.
Practice (controlled): Divide students into pairs (A and B). Explain the task: In pairs, students interview one another for specific jobs of their choice, with the questions and answers provided on worksheets. Request a student to state what the task is.
Drilling: Drill pronunciation of key words (practise phonetic sounds and stress/emphasis of each word) – e.g. performing /pəˈfɔːmɪŋ/ , mirroring
Not controlled: Brainstorm British musicians from any age of time: Request students to state aloud musicians they can think of from any period of time, including the present. Nominate an advanced student to write answers provided on the board (state that the student and his/her peers are to help one another with the spelling and pronunciation of musicians they list).
Explain to students that they are to imagine they are musicians. Request students to, in groups of threes, create a display of word, sentences and pictures (using the material provided), to show what they've been working on as British musicians for the last 5 years. Explain students are to choose amongst the list of popular British musicians (as listed on the board)
Drill (Free) (with expression, intonation) the pronunciation of key sentences which express the present perfect (sentences which contain the keywords) – e.g. Those girls have been performing at the Royal Albert Hall for decades!
Pre-plenary: Give students a comic with text beneath each picture. The text represents various tenses. Each picture corresponds to the text. Request students to place the correct text under the correct box. and underline or circle the present perfect sentences. Ask for class feedback regarding task.
Plenary/Evaluation: Quiz students by using 'Traffic Lights'. Explain task to students. Call out the name of a student and then ask the student to explain what the task is to the class. List, one by one, sentences in various tenses. Request students to raise a green circle on a lollipop stick to indicate “Yes, it (the sentence) is written in the present perfect tense!”, and they would raise a red circle on lollipop stick to indicate “No, it (the sentence) is not written in the present perfect tense!” Reward students with a sweet each for effort (those who got 1-5 answers correct), and two sweets for those who got 6-10 answers right. Place smiley stickers on the work of every student as they leave the classroom to congratulate and encourage them for their effort, and in their continuous learning.
Assumptions: As students are of the intermediate level, they should understand the basic formation of the present perfect tense. The present perfect lesson would form part of revision for most, if not all students. They would practise using the tense more than concentrate on how and when the tense is used.
Reasons: The implementation of VAK greatly enhances student current learning of tenses, motivates student present learning and sets a precedence for future learning.
The lesson also provides students with confidence boosts as they learn to understand the meaning of keywords, and master the English pronunciation and usage of the keywords within the correct context, for the present perfect. The new vocabulary allows students to use more words used by native English speakers with specific and relevant contexts.
Students complete the lesson knowing they have worked to gain the skills to achieve the specified learning goals and objectives. Students complete their learning, recognising that they entered the classroom with prior learning (e.g. vocabulary previously learned). They leave the lesson having learned the meaning of, how to pronounce and use new vocabulary relevant in today's modern Britain, and other English-based countries (e.g. the US, Australia, etc).