A scientific journal is an article written by researchers on a subject for academic purposes. The purpose is to communicate a new research. Before it is published, it must be peer-reviewed to access the quality of the document. There are three types of scientific journals; original, review, and theoretical journals.
Before publication, a manuscript is written. It gives the researchers an opportunity to edit their work and check on accuracy and consistency. Assemble all the vital pieces of information before you begin writing to ensure an easier time. View each section of the journal as a separate task and give it maximum attention.
The journal is made up of the following sections;
ñThe Title Page
ñMaterials and Methods
The Title Page: this is the first page of the journal, it provides the introduction and opening remarks. A good title for the research is vital and should be informative and captivating. It summarizes the journal in few words. The page should contain: the full name of the researcher/s, instructor’s name, the due date of the journal and any other relevant information.
Abstract: this is a brief statement of the content of the journal. It clearly highlights what the journal discusses. The investigative question forms the first statement statement, and is followed by what was done to answer that question. The abstract uses simple language.
Key Words: this section lists the principal words used in the journal. The reader should pay attention to them as they are severally repeated and cardinal.
Introduction: it provides the background information necessary for the study, and explains what led to the research. The statement that was made for the research earlier on is accompanied by the hypotheses that were tested. Finally, the objectives are listed and several reasons why the reader should continue reading the journal.
Materials and Methods: procedures followed for the research are shown in this section. A vivid description of the statistical methods of collection of data and recording is vital. A person should be able to conduct the same procedures at ease upon reading the section.
Results: this is a clear description of the results from the procedures described in the previous section and should be backed up by the data collected.
Discussion: the interpretation of the results is made here in detail, possible causes of those results are stated, and so is a probable conclusion.
Conclusion: this should be a brief paragraph on the key findings of the research, and acknowledgement of the people who aided in the whole project.
References: this is a list of all citations found in the journal: it should contain the original sources of the information. List the references alphabetically, depending on your preferred style.
For a presentable scientific journal, the following should be followed;
n Begin with writing a draft.
n Research on a topic that is clear.
n Read the guidelines for writing a scientific journal.
n Outline all the sections before writing.
For a superb paper, you need more than knowledge of your research area. Systematic approach paired up with good writing skills will deliver an almost perfect paper. A person has to develop a positive mentality towards the topic of study, which is created by among other factors, having the necessary information.
The first step is to come up with a topic on which you will base your research. For an already given topic, begin with the interpretation. Limit the research to a particular aspect so as to avoid making assumptions that could make the paper baseless. Choose an area that has a wide variety of resource material.
Having identified your topic, find information. List all your sources and under each, include area of interest. The Internet, for example, could be used to get the background information, the encyclopedias as a summary source, and questionnaires to get different views from a selected group of people and so on.
The third step is to formulate a topic statement. A thesis is a summary of the entire research paper, and should hence be complimentary to the research findings. The content that follows serves as supporting information of the above. Therefore, it should be arrived at critically and creatively. Choose a thesis that is open-ended to enable a follow-up discussion.
Outline your research paper. The format of the document includes:
The introduction; state your research question and its purpose. Mention what the paper plans to look at, also include the areas left out. It is mandatory for an introduction to have a brief explanation of the role of the paper.
Body; a presentation of the argument, together with the supporting information from the sources. Begin with a captivating statement, that will hold the discussion to the end. The body is the longest section in the paper.
Conclusion; present a summarized version of your argument, stating the reason/s for that conclusion.
Organize your information. Go over all the data sourced from your research. Confirm that the information is factual and useful. Sort the data in terms of what should appear in the introduction, body, and conclusion. Do not include any plagiarized work. List down all the necessary citations for an informed bibliography.
Before the final research paper, a draft is written. Outline your paper following the format discussed earlier, inserting all the useful and relevant information. Check for spelling mistakes and errors through the use of online checkers such as Grammarly. Finally, make sure that the draft is plagiarism free.
Lastly, type the research paper. Use the recommended style and font, or any other that can be used in formal writing. Proofread the typed work once more to correct typing errors, which may include; missing punctuations, spelling mistakes, and duplicated words. Finally append your name and any other necessary information on the cover page.
In summary, for a great research paper:
uHave a clear research question.
uConduct some research.
uChoose your topic well.
uUse original ideas.
uGet some advice if needed
A piece of writing unless written well, will not communicate the intended idea. However, bad writing can be improved easily if the writer pays attention to detail and is willing to learn. Writing is a form of expression and therefore should always express the intended message.
To begin with the writer should start with the question “why am I writing?” Because more often than not, most writers do not know why they took up writing in the first place. The answer to thing question brings with it ideas,m meditate on those ideas and you will have a great story to tell or essay to write. The question also paves way to a stream of thoughts that will provide material for your next writing.
Begin your piece of writing with a story. This story will help you as a writer express your point of view in a precise manner as you already have a reference tool. The story could be factual or fictional but it is what you will capture the attention of you readers with. It will also make your work memorable hence can be rewritten.
If you are a struggling writer, the television should become your enemy for it clouds your creativity. Television mostly deals with the real world with is obvious, books on the other hand introduce the writer to the life of imagination. Reading should be as much as one can as the reading causes the writer to redefine their own work.
A good writer should use all the three person narratives at some point in their career. The first-person narrative which is from the “I” perspective introduces the writer to the reader. Second person “you” empathizes with the reader and the third person writes from an anonymous point of view. The first-person can be easier to communicate with, but as a writer you should not only confine yourself to only your experiences but should include others too.
Write on an area you are most comfortable with. One of the reasons why writers get stuck is that they write a piece having not researched, hence have very little information at hand. Research could take various forms for example, a chat with a friend on the topic you intend to write on or asking random people about their views on the same. These findings will help your original piece plus will also boost your confidence in writing.
Writing should start as a grown interest which should be personal therefore one should not waste time trying to please everyone in one article. Write what brings you joy and fulfillment and let those two things act as your inspiration and motivation. Find a subject that means a lot to you and write it so well that as a result it means just as much to your readers.
In conclusion good writer should:
- minimize on television and maximize on reading.
- Always start with a question.
- Write about things that are familiar.
A business letter is written from one party to another about business. Business letters vary as they serve different purposes, for example, one may be written to request for delivery, and another to cancel an order. The letter also serves as evidence that a particular communication took place, hence is more preferred than other forms of communication.
The key element in the letter is the formal language used as an overly casual letter may be labeled as unofficial. The audience addressed by the letter determines the language, as the improper language may alienate the reader. Care should be taken to ensure that the letter's content is clear and leaves a lasting impression.
There are two main styles of writing the business letter: the full block style; all elements fall on the left margin, or the Modified block style: some elements appear there. The length of the letter should not be too long as the writer hopes the reader will be able to get the message after quickly skimming over it.
The letter has six part. The Heading: this is where the writer includes his address, with the date below it. The telephone number and E-mail address may also be included depending on the writer's preference but should appear before.
The receiver's address: It should include the name of the specific person or the organization. It should appear on the left margin always. The insider address should match the address written on the envelope.
The Salutation: or the greetings in a business letter is very formal and often begin with “Dear” followed by one of the name of the reader or the title they hold. Use a neutral title if the gender of the person is unknown.
The Body: this is the text where you include the purpose of writing the letter. Organize the content in well-arranged paragraphs depending on the preferred style. Express all your thoughts here as this is the only part you are able to do so. Skip a line between the paragraphs.
The Complimentary Close: this brief and polite closing of your letter should include a summary of your expectations from the reader and express gratitude for having read your letter to its completion. Paragraphing should be as the rest of the parts.
The Signature Line: Skip a line and write the name of the writer in full or initials, a title may be indicated but is not mandatory. Leave a space for the actual signature which marks the end if the letter.
Proofread your letter after finishing, errors are highly discouraged as they create a bad first impression. When writing your writer make sure you are specific and straight to the point. For example if the purpose was a reminder of a meeting; state the date, venue and the time it will take place.
In summary, a good business letter should be:
l Well addressed and well paragraphed.
l Well written and concise.
l Very brief and clear.
l Precise to its function.
Plagiarism is the use of an author's work and the representation of it as ones work. In other words, it is to commit literary theft and is punishable by the law. Original thoughts and ideas are considered intellectual property and are protected by copyright laws. Plagiarism occurs in some ways for example: using words or ideas that belong to someone else without giving credit or using so many words from a source in your work without giving credit.
The field of academia is the worst hit as the quest for academic accolades forces scholars to submit other people's work as their own. Researching for a paper is easy. However, it becomes an uphill task to put down the information acquired in a paper without plagiarizing. There are steps that can ensure that as you submit your paper only original ideas or quoted ones are used.
Plan ahead. Allocate enough time to search for sources of information and take notes. Having already identified your area of interest it should not be difficult to incorporate ideas from your research. Enough time also means that you will be able to work on using your language and not the one used on electronic media or the books.
Do not copy and paste. Never transfer work from the Internet straight to your essay or make adjustments to an already existing work. Instead, open a new document and begin your work carefully using own words with the help of your research. If you are to use the information you have copied, include the full citation information needed.
Paraphrase: It is the use of own words to express the meaning of an existing article. Make sure that you do not use more than two words following each other from the original work, quotations marks will be needed if you do.
Cite. You should make a point to cite your work as it is the most effective way to avoid plagiarism. The citation style you choose to use should be uniform in the paper. Make sure you add citations to you notes to help in easy retrieval.
Referencing. Always include a reference page or pages at the end of your research paper. The referencing style should the one specified and should be uniformed in all the entries in the references page. The reference should include the name of the author, publication date, title and the source.
Quoting. Exact use of a quote as appears in the source, avoid misquoting for some quotes maybe well known. Indicate a quote by use of quotation marks. If the quote is from or obscure author, do not attribute it to a well-known known author.
To sum up, you can avoid plagiarism if you:
n Plan for the research of the paper.
n Avoid copying and pasting from the Internet.
n paraphrase your sources.
n cite and reference your work.
n Keep your written work and your source separate.
n Keep away from the common sites when sourcing for information.
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